Environmental conflict resolution
Environmental conﬂict resolution (ECR) comprises a subset of tools and processes to prevent, manage, and resolve conﬂicts involving environmental quality or natural resources management. In its broadest terms, ECR may be characterised as third-party assisted deliberations over environmental issues among affected parties, intended to arrive at the best possible mutually beneﬁcial outcomes. ECR has been used in settings, where broad or deep disagreement is anticipated, has begun to escalate, or has already led to impasse. ECR has also been drawn on to build agreement or reach consensus among multiple parties over policy development, planning, and complex regulatory negotiations (Emerson et al., 2009).